One of the biggest mistakes mediocre speakers make is to keep using the same type of illustration over and over. Here are a few examples you may not have thought of before. Continue reading 5 Illustrations Mediocre Speakers Don’t Know: Example
When should you use a quotation, stat, testimonial, or endorsement? Mediocre speakers all sound the same because mediocre speakers tend to do things for the wrong reason. You can’t answer when to do it unless you first understand why.
Last week we showed how evidence should be used not just to make a point, but to build the credibility of the speaker. My SpeechDeck communication skills system used the five Es of illustration. Today is number three–Endorsement:
What is an Endorsement?
Here are three common types of endorsements:
Evidence such as facts, figures, and research can be used as an endorsement, similarly quotations or testimonials may include factual evidence or have a basis in research. There is often overlap between the two. So what’s the difference?
“There are two types of speakers: Those who get nervous and those who are liars.” – Mark Twain
Are the words from Mark Twain above an “endorsement” or “evidence”?
For our purposes, what matters most is the your PURPOSE for using the words of Mark Twain.
As explained last week, the PURPOSE of “evidence” is to prove the credibility of the speaker (and only rarely your argument).
In other words, if I quote Mark Twain to illustrate that I know a lot about public speaking and that I am familiar with the industry, then I am using that quote as “evidence” — evidence that makes me a more credible messenger on public speaking.
On the other hand, maybe I just want to quote Mark Twain because he’s funny. Maybe I used Mark Twain because I know that in America, most people know who he is and love his pithy wisdom. That would be an “endorsement.”
The purpose of an endorsement is to NORMALIZE your message and yourself.
If I and everyone in the room laughs together, I instantly become NORMAL–no matter what I’m talking about. When we all do the same thing–laugh–I can’t be perceived as too different. In the SpeechDeck color-coded presentation skills system this is the orange principle of “Developing Relationships.”
But what if I was talking to a Chinese Audience?
Some of the audience might still laugh, but for those that don’t really know Mark Twain or relate to American culture I can easily do myself a disservice. Instead of building rapport, the exact same quote might actually seem AB-NORMAL. By reinforcing my cultural difference, a Mark Twain quote to a non-American audience might make me seem less NORMAL, less credible, and more foreign.
Mark Twain calls people liars. It’s normal for Americans to call people liars. That’s not normal everywhere.
So back to my original question: When should you use a quotation?
NOT when it breaks rapport.
NOT when it highlights differences with the audience.
NOT when it seems ab-normal.
This is why quoting Hillary Clinton or Donald Trump in a politically diverse audience is likely to get you into big trouble. No matter how wise the words, half the audience won’t think it’s NORMAL, even if the other half does.
Good endorsements, on the other hand, are those that align with the listeners’ existing in-group relationships and experience.
If you’re talking to an audience of Republicans, quoting president Reagan seems a lot more normal, because Reagan is already in the Republican in-group.
A good quotation is one that comes from a person the listener already admires and understands. Or perhaps even better said, someone who understands the audience. The originator of the quote must seem NORMAL.
When do you use a quotation? When it makes you and your message seem NORMAL.
This is why testimonials make great endorsements. A testimonial is pretty much just a quote from someone in the audience member’s own peer group.
If you have ever been to a sales presentation of any kind, a skilled presenter probably had people “just like you” who already bought the product stand up in the room, or speak on video about how great the product was.
The salesperson–if he or she was good–was trying to make the product seem NORMAL!
When do you use a testimonial? When you need your message, or yourself to seem NORMAL.
If you don’t have a good quote from someone the audience already respects, and you don’t have an audience peer to quote, then you just associate yourself with someone or something that seems normal.
An association is an implied endorsement without the direct quote.
Master inspirational Zig Ziglar is really good at making associations
Do you see what I did there?
I’ve never met Zig Ziglar.
I didn’t quote Zig Ziglar.
I have no idea what Zig Ziglar thinks about this blog post.
Nevertheless, I associated him with my main point. Subconsciously, the reader also associates my message with him–someone more famous than I am in my industry. Some of his gravitas rubs off on me props up my message.
And I didn’t even lie! Nothing I said above was dishonest — so I didn’t really cheat.
I can associate myself with objects, people, experiences, language, traditions, or anything that my audience finds NORMAL.
Like … totally normal, dude!
If I jokingly say it that way I automatically associate myself and endear myself to people who are my age who remember that kind of language as a NORMAL part of junior high school. If you don’t get it, you’re probably not my age. I shouldn’t use that specific language association when I’m speaking to someone that never thought it was NORMAL.
As we have done in every post of this series, let’s help the TV weatherman become a better communicator by adding endorsements. Our mediocre weatherman starts by saying.
It’s going to be a comfortable 82 degrees tomorrow.
The weatherman could appeal to a third party that the listener already respects:
According to the National Weather Service, it’s going to be 92 degrees tomorrow.
He could appeal to an audience peer testimonial:
We received an e-mail from Jessica in Springville who said she’s going to use the nice weather tomorrow to take her kids to the park.
The subconscious message is: “If normal listener Jessica believes him, I should too.” Alternatively, the weatherman could associate himself indirectly with someTHING that seems normal to the audience:
This is the kind of weather that makes it really hot in a parked car. Be careful for pets and children.
Of course you already know that. Nevertheless, I bet you’ve heard some newscaster actually say something like it — because everybody listening knows what’s it’s like to get in a parked car that feels more like a sauna. It makes the weatherman seem NORMAL.
There are 5 types of illustrations — 5 Es:
For some reason, mediocre speakers think facts and figures make them better presenters. Yet somehow, even after adding more facts and figures, mediocre speakers still sound just like everybody else.
Last week we discussed the least effective type of illustration–Explanation.
This week we’ll discuss the second of the 5 types of illustrations that you can use to convey your message–Evidence.
If you do it right, evidence (facts and figures) can make you look more credible, more authoritative, and more intelligent.
On the other hand, I’m willing to guess that you’ve also been to that know-it-all’s presentation with so much information that you sat there with only one thought:
I don’t care!
Have you seen that know-it-all? Do you respect him more? or less because of all the evidence he spews all over the office?
I can’t possibly enumerate all the ways that you can do it wrong, but here’s three:
- Other people’s knowledge
- Logical Argument
- Information overload
All of these problems lead to mediocrity because of one simple fact:
The purpose of evidence is not to prove your POINT. The purpose of evidence is to prove YOURSELF.
Let me illustrate …
Other people’s knowledge
Isn’t that what they taught you to do in school? Always reference where you got your information? Of course! You have to give credit where it is due.
The problem is, that the more you talk about other people’s expertise, the more other people look like the expert instead of you!
The point of sharing evidence is to prove YOURSELF — YOUR credibility. Merely sharing evidence for the sake of evidence can actually make you look worse. This is especially true is you have to consult your notes, read the evidence from a slide, or hesitate to “make sure you get it right.”
If you want to use Stephen Hawking’s research to prove your point, why should I listen to you instead of reading what Stephen Hawking says about it himself?
Don’t get me wrong–you can and should use evidence. Just make sure you are establishing your own credibility and not someone else’s.
A mediocre speaker shows a chart like the one above from the US Center for Disease Control (CDC), then they begin to nearly quote the CDC numbers verbatim:
In 2010, a total of 2,468,435 deaths occurred in the United States. The first two leading causes of death, heart disease (597,689 deaths) and cancer (574,743) …
That’s the wrong way to do it because nobody actual cares about the exact number 597,689!
If you’re giving a speech on heart disease your goal it NOT to prove how many people die of heart disease, your goal is to prove that YOU know enough about heart disease to be trusted.
The actual number is nearly irrelevant. When you read other people’s information verbatim, all you prove is that you know WHO ELSE knows more than you.
All you have to do to retain credibility for yourself if make the information your own. MEMORIZE the most relevant evidence, reference the source, but present it as your own knowledge.
According to the CDC, 24% of deaths are from heart disease. I know that if you include indirect deaths from other causes, it’s even higher …
All that other information, and sometimes even the chart is just evidence for the sake of evidence, and will not help you.
Another EXTREMELY common mistake from mediocre public speakers is to present facts and figures as proof in a logical argument that the speaker believes will convince the listener of some “thesis.”
If you are actually presenting an academic thesis or dissertation, this may be expected behavior, but in real life, business, or social settings, that type of academic presentation puts people to sleep.
Academics want the evidence for the evidence sake. Remember, though, everywhere else, your goal is not to make the EVIDENCE credible, but to make YOURSELF credible.
There is a subtle, yet monumental difference between:
Academic: This research proves I’m not wrong
Persuasive: This research illustrates my point
The academic, in the interest of appearing unbiased, leaves open the possibility that he may be wrong, and indirectly invites the listener to doubt. This may be a healthy approach in the scientific method, but it’s also why it takes decades for the scientific consensus to be overturned.
Most presentations require more inspirational, fast-tracked results. In science the researched assumes the truth of her position and tries to disprove herself.
The persuader assumes the truth of his position, and illustrates it with confirmatory evidence.
There is a reason I call the proof an illustration, and not a proof. One approach assumes the presenter is wrong, unless he can prove the EVIDENCE is valid. The second approach assumes the SPEAKER is right because THE SPEAKER knows the evidence.
In most settings, you want the latter — because you are trying to establish your own credibility, not that of the evidence.
It’s not about the EVIDENCE; it’s about the SPEAKER!
I don’t think I need to explain “information overload.” You’ve been there. You’ve seen it. You didn’t like it.
Because once again … your goal is NOT to show the audience what all the information is, you’re goal is to show that YOU have all the information.
If you have everything, they need you! If you give them everything, they don’t! Give them just enough that they know you have more of what they want.
How would I coach the TV weatherman to include evidence. The weatherman doesn’t usually just say:
It will be a nice day sometime …
Credibility requires names and numbers:
Saturday it will be 82 degrees by noon
The name is “Saturday” and the numbers are “82” and “noon.” Names and numbers make you more credible — they are evidence.
Of course, any wanna-be-weatherman with no real credentials can read that off the screen, or from the National Weather Service (NWS). The more persuasive weatherperson will learn how to make the names and numbers his or her own:
The NWS models say it will be 82 degrees by noon on Saturday; Based on the lower stratospheric winds, I forecast you’ll have an about 5 degrees warmer Sunday.
This weather report delivers the message, but also builds the credibility of the messenger, because the weatherperson shares his own evidence “I forecast” with specifics “5 degrees” and “Sunday” in addition to someone else’s. Also the messenger throws in specific names “lower stratospheric winds” to prove his or her own credibility.
Warning: If the weatherman looks like he has to read it, he looks like a wanna-be. The words only work if they appear to be coming from the weatherman and not from the teleprompter.
We as listeners probably don’t care to understand about the “lower stratospheric winds.” What we do care about is trusting that the weatherman does!
Likewise, your boss doesn’t usually care about all the evidence in your presentation. He or she doesn’t want to know it all, but your boss does want to know that you do.
The purpose of evidence is not to prove your POINT. The purpose of evidence is to prove YOURSELF.
The evidence only helps if it has your fingerprints all over it!
Mediocre presenters think evidence by itself will make them better communicators. It won’t! It take 5 types of illustrations to rise above mediocrity:
Next week we’ll make the most of number 3.
Mediocre communicators are all the same! By that, of course, I mean that mediocre presenters get in the rut of presenting everything the same way.
In my SpeechDeck Communication System, there are 5 types of illustrations — five types of proof that support the message you are trying to convey. I call them the 5 Es. Mediocre presenters tend to pick one or two and ignore the rest.
Mediocre speakers almost always default to the least effective E — explanation.
This is the speaker who rambles. This is the presenter who thinks he has to explain the joke when nobody laughs. This is the “teacher” who thinks “teacher” is a synonym for “lecturer.”
This is the presenter whose first slide is a bulleted list, whose last slide is a bulleted list, and all the slides in between were probably bulleted lists, but nobody was paying enough attention to remember.
This is the lecturer who follows the same format from beginning to end and that format is … explanation.
Did you notice that instead of explaining what it means to explain something, I instead gave you examples of people who explain? I could have just explained it:
Explanation: statement or account that makes something clear
That definition is REALLY boring. <<<—- And that sentence (and this one) are the perfect examples of explanation. You really don’t need me to tell you any of this paragraph. As you see, explanation is usually unnecessary. We better try something else …
Are you an explanation addict?
You know that you’re falling into the explanation trap if you catch yourself trying to make a point, and then clarifying it, and then rewording it again and again. If you’re never satisfied with what you say, that’s a sure sign that you’re trying to explain something instead of “present” something.
Explanations usually focus on a mediocre speaker’s selfish need to perfect and articulate information in his or her own head rather than the inspirational speaker’s desire to “present” something the audience truly wants and craves from the audience perspective.
Here is a mediocre TV weatherman who is an explanation addict:
Tomorrow will be a nice day … nice, meaning a day you probably will like … maybe not perfect, but nice, you know … not to cold, not too hot, nice … you might prefer to call it a pleasant day … or comfortable … the dictionary defines NICE as agreeable, satisfactory …
Of course, if you’re mediocre enough to use such an ambiguous word as “nice,” some explanation will be required.
Building a Better Explanation
No speaker can avoid all explanations, but not all explanations are created equal:
I’ve created the above (incomplete) list of explanations in order of typical effectiveness.
The mediocre presenter inexplicably feels the need to EXPLAIN details that are irrelevant or obvious.
In 2007, apple began selling the iPhone. Before 2007, people didn’t have smart phones, or any phone with a touchscreen or internet which they could access by tapping the screen.
If you were in the audience do you really need the speaker to explain to you that once upon a time you didn’t have a smartphone? NO! DEFINING what a smartphone is and DESCRIBING how to use it is pure unnecessary EXPLANATION.
Giving that explanation makes you look less credible, less interesting, and more patronizing.
It might look obvious in my example, but I’ve heard nearly those exact words about the very subject of cell phones in numerous presentations.
DEFINITIONS and DESCRIPTIONS are usually the least effective explanations. If you must have descriptions, such as describing the setting of a story, make sure you use the SpeechDeck principles of color to make those descriptions more engaging.
Keep logical explanations simple:
Most of us didn’t have smart phones until at least 2007
That’s enough to raise the point that things have changed. We already know what that implies without having it explained to us.
If you really feel the need to drive home a point about not having smart phones, don’t explain it with a DEFINITION or DESCRIPTION, use one of the more effective types of EXPLANATIONS such as a DEMONSTRATION in which you could imitate using a 1990 style car phone in today’s world, or an ANALOGY:
In 1990 you probably had a VCR. Do you remember the video store charging you extra fee if you didn’t rewind? We didn’t have smartphones until the iPhone in 2007! Imagine using VHS tapes today, or 1990s style car phones today …
I hope you can see, without any commentary, how DEMONSTRATIONS and ANALOGIES almost always make less patronizing EXPLANATIONS than DESCRIPTIONS and DEFINITIONS.
The simplest way for the amateur to rise above mediocrity is simply by replacing the long-winded definition with a COMPARISON:
Tomorrow will be a nice day … 5 degrees warmer than today.
A weatherman could take it up another notch with demonstration or analogy.
Weatherpeople on TV almost always use a visual representation of the forecast. Visual Aids are a type of DEMONSTRATION that is usually more effective than a mere verbal explanation. The most effective presenters make their DEMONSTRATIONS more creative.
I remember a few years ago, the most popular weatherman in my local area used to wear a white suit coat every time the forecast called for snow. That’s a DEMONSTRATION. That’s also why his station had the highest ratings — every other station just had a guy in a business suit saying it will probably snow.
So if I were coaching the weatherman on the ten o’clock news — a job that requires a lot of EXPLANATION, I would encourage him to spruce up his explanations with COMPARISONS, VISUALS, DEMONSTRATIONS, and lastly, ANALOGY:
Tomorrow’s going to be a nice day … like the sun wants to give you a big hug (5 degrees warmer).
Cheesiness is optional. I’m merely trying to illustrate that better explanations don’t put you to sleep.
You should try to avoid long explanations, whenever practical. The more you EXPLAIN, the more your whole presentation sounds the SAME, and the more you seem mediocre.
There are 5 types of illustrations that drive home your message. We’ve covered just one:
Next week we’ll talk about another illustration type that mediocre speakers butcher, the second E: Link here.
Weatherman image: Dave Scott by photographer Phil Konstantin (wikimedia)
People will tune you out when you act like a book. People will check out the cover, maybe pay attention to the inside of the jacket, and then close the cover, put you back on the shelf, and forget about you.
The most common reason people tune you out is predictability, I wrote about that months ago. Acting like a book, is a very close second on the list of what makes a mediocre public speaker.
If you act like a colorful picture book, you’ll be okay, but most mediocre speakers act like one of those long, poorly formatted, picture-less research studies that’s hardbound in a blank, solid cover.
Verbal communication and public speaking skills are not the same as writing skills.
How to Be a Book
The first rule of being a book:
It’s the reader’s responsibility to understand
When your audience is reading, they have already committed to putting in the effort to read, think, and understand. Written communication has the advantage that you already know the reader is committed and engaged.
Second rule of being a book:
Give them lots of information
Nobody wants to buy a book and feel like they read 300 pages for nothing. You better include lots of great stats, lots of proofs and examples, and lots of details.
Readers expect to concentrate. They read and reread, backtrack and sometimes flip pages out of order. You better give them lots of information!
In other words the structure of a book might look something like this:
Agree with me message because …
- It’s convenient
- It’s easy
- It’s cool
My book above, is structured to give you three, or more reasons to agree with me. Most books have 7, 10 or even hundreds of tips, techniques, and arguments.
In a written message you want to say lots of things about your topic. The reader does all the work. The reader finds the parts that are most relevant, reads, rereads, and analyzes.
Don’t Be a Book!
If you want better verbal presentation skills, you can’t assume the audience will take on that responsibility. When you’re communicating verbally: DON’T BE A BOOK!
Don’t be a book. Don’t be an essay. Don’t be a research paper.
If you take “your book” and present it verbally, you present as if it’s the listener’s responsibility to do all the work. No offense, but even if you are a great speaker, trying to concentrate on your every word for more than a few minutes is exhausting.
First rule of NOT being a book:
It’s YOUR responsibility to make them understand
As a public speaker, you’re listener doesn’t have the luxury of choosing when, how much, or how slowly they read. They only have one choice, listen or not to listen. Therefore, when presenting verbally it’s YOUR responsibility to make it easy.
Second rule of NOT being a book:
Don’t give them lots of information
The audience at your presentation, without written information, has no rewind, stop or pause buttons. The more information you give them, the harder you are forcing them to work. Good public speaking skills make it easier for the listener, not harder.
Whether it’s due to their laziness, your ambiguity, or a distraction, a listener only has to miss one step in your logic to subvert your good intentions. With no rewind button, everything you say after that missed step is pointless.
Either they get caught up trying to understand something they missed, and you lose them. Or they stop trying, and you lose them. Either way, you lose them. They tune out.
Verbal Presentation Organization
The structure of a non-book (verbal presentation) requires that you narrow your presentation to the most relevant topic. Verbal presentations are ideal for this because you have the ability to interact:
“Tell me what’s most important to you?”
Let me show you three ways my idea is “convenient.”
1. Convenient because …
2. Convenient because …
3. Convenient because …
Nearly everyone who contacts me for public speaking coaching or speechwriting help has lots of great content–they have a “book.” Whether it’s officially published or not, they have a book’s worth of information.
Nearly every speech I review and evaluation includes the “3 ways” or the “7 steps” or “10 laws” and so forth.
I get it. Your product has 12 great features and you want to talk about all of them.
Pick one–the one that matters most to the listeners–and give me several examples that all illustrate that ONE thing.
If you ask professional speakers you’ll probably hear this rule of thumb
Say only one thing every 15 minutes.
No rule is hard and fast, but 10-15 minutes is a good ballpark.
If you really must tell me more than one thing, you can, but you need a lot more time. If you’re trying to show me all 12 things in 15 minutes you’re more than likely a mediocre speaker.
I’m lazy (and so are most listeners). I’ll pay attention to the first one (maybe) and then tune out.
If you really want to tell me all 12 things, you need at least two hours (12 times 10+ minutes each).
Conquer Public Speaking Mediocrity
In a book, you tell the reader THREE THINGS (or more). In a verbal presentation you tell the listener ONE THING three(or more) different ways.
Verbally you can’t tell them everything. You can’t give them all the information that’s in the book. See my previous posts about the big lie that you need more information.
This is so critically important that I need to repeat myself:
In a book, you tell the reader THREE THINGS (or more). In a verbal presentation you tell the listener ONE THING three (or more) different ways.
Lot’s of people know lots of great information. Lot’s of people can WRITE great content. But lot’s of people don’t condense that information correctly when they present verbally.
If you do, you will instantly become more clear, more memorable, and more successful at verbal communication. You will take your presentation from mediocrity to excellence.
In one of life’s great ironies, you may become a better writer when you say more, but you become a better speaker when you say less.
When your speaking, don’t be a book!
When you make it YOUR responsibility to keep the listener engaged you change everything.
Your “book” represents everything you know. It represents your contribution to your organization and customers. Your “book” is your expertise, talents, and value.
Know everything in the book, but don’t act like a book. Give them something a book can’t give–interaction.
Make a great impression interacting about ONE thing. When you prove one thing so thoroughly, you’ll leave a great impression, and leave the listener wanting more. When the audience wants more, they won’t tune out.
They’ll invest in YOU–they’ll buy the book.
What is the number one technique that people thank me for? As my thanks to you this Thanksgiving, I want to give you the gift that I’m most thanked for.
So you’ve learned that most persuaders, most politicians, and most speakers are doing it wrong. By doing what they were taught in school, 95% of presenters actually alienate the audience. What are they doing wrong?
If you ever spoke to somebody with the intention of giving them “information,” let me give you a sobering statistic: studies show that no matter how much information you speak, the listener remembers the same amount.
In other words, it doesn’t matter whether you speak for 5 minutes of 5 hours, the listener remembers the same amount of information!
It doesn’t matter whether you give them 5 important details or 50 information gems–they will remember the same amount.
And it gets worse–well over HALF of the listeners will remember just two or fewer things!
In you haven’t read last week’s post, check it out now: The Big Lie, part 1
Once you have read last week’s post, let me reiterate the main point. The idea that you can communicate substantial information to people by speaking is a lie! You should always remember these two rules:
1: Use WRITTEN media for INFORMATION
2: Use VERBAL media for INTERACTION / IMPRESSION
The curse of verbal information
People can only remember a limited amount of verbal information. That’s been proven over and over. The overwhelming majority of listeners remember just one or two things.
Sure, one person in the room might remember 10 things (probably because he wrote things down), but because every person has a limit, you know one thing is sure:
The more information you present, the less control you have over the impression you make!
If you speak for 15 minutes and give just one tidbit of information, the listener has only one choice, remember the one thing, or remember nothing.
If you give the listener a 12 step program, and the average listener remembers just 2 steps, how much control do you have? NONE!
Even if the listener remember 5 things, you don’t know which of the 12 steps they will be! You essentially give up control, and the listener because just as likely to remember the least important point as the most important one.
So I repeat:
The more information you present, the less control you have over the impression you make!
Information in Politics
There are some candidates that love to give long discourses on facts and information. The king of information on the Republican side was Rand Paul, and he never earned more than 9% support in any poll (usually less than 5%).
Donald Trump gets criticized more than any other candidate for never having any substance (information) and yet he’s winning. It’s not an accident. Trump is a persuasive genius, and he’s withholding information on purpose!
Every time you see a focus group on TV, the “concerned citizens” will always declare that they want the presidential candidates to argue on substance (information). This is a total LIE!
These honest citizens don’t know it’s a lie. The lie is not that people think they want information. They really do think they want information–because we’ve been taught that information makes as informed voters.
The lie is that information persuades you to change your mind. Information is only the rational mind’s excuse. Read this post for an explanation of why you shouldn’t believe that “explanation.” You shouldn’t believe explanations, you should believe results–Trump is winning, Paul had to bow out.
Honestly, every Republican candidate agrees on 80% of the “information.”
If the rational mind mattered most, the candidate who presented the information the best would win. You and I both know that the candidate with endless information puts everybody to sleep and loses every time!
Use LESS information
My wife teaches public school. On a regular basis she comes home exasperated. The story generally goes like this: I explained the assignment clearly. I gave them clear 3 steps. I repeated it twice, yet 5 minutes later 80 percent of the students come up and ask me “what am I supposed to do?”
I remind her every time of the big lie: “You can’t present information verbally!”
Whether you like it or not, when you present verbally, you must start with the assumption the nobody is listening! It’s not necessarily that they don’t want to listen, it’s that everybody has a physical limit on what they can learn verbally.
If you are a teacher, and your job is to teach INFORMATION, you have only one option:
INFORMATION must be WRITTEN
The teacher can write it, or better yet, make the students write it!
For everybody else, your goal should be to INTERACT in the way that makes the right IMPRESSION.
My SpeechDeck communication system is all about making that impression stick!
One study (Scherer and Sagarin 2006) showed that using obscenity correctly actually increased the persuasiveness of a speech! However, if you want to be a great communicator, there is one four-letter word you must get out of your head forever.
I’ve analyzed hundreds of speakers, and nearly all the worst presenters have the same thing in common. If you don’t know why it’s a problem, you’re probably one of them. Continue reading The #1 Reason Good Speakers Give Bad Presentations